Personal, Social, Relationships, Sex, Health and Economic Education (PSRSHEE) Policy
This policy complies with Part 2, paragraph 5 of The Education (Independent School Standards) Regulations 2014, in force Jan 2015 and has regard for The Relationships, Sex and Health Education (2020) and The Equality Act 2010
It should be read alongside the Curriculum and Learning Policy, the SMSC policy and the school’s policy and procedures for Prevent.
The Cedars School is committed to providing a comprehensive programme of personal, social, relationships, sex, health and economic education (PSRSHEE) for our children which is appropriate to their age and needs.
PSRSHEE in our school encompasses all areas designed to promote children’s personal, social emotioanl and health development and, in this policy, refers to taught lessons in the allocated curriculum time, cross-curricular elements, assemblies and sex and relationships education lessons. It allows children to build the knowledge, skills and understanding they need to stay healthy and safe, both mentally and physically, to develop worthwhile relationships, respect differences, improve independence and responsibility and make the most of their own abilities and those of others.
Personal: The personal aspects of PSHEE look to develop the whole individual. It supports the progression of qualities and skills children already have. Through becoming aware of their own emotions and how to manage them, children can feel empowered to deal with the challenges that life can bring. This also supports their independence and the capacity to take responsibility for their actions.
Social: The social element focuses on cohesion in both the school and wider community. It aims for children to live alongside one another regardless of race, sex, disability or faith and to judge all people fairly and equally. Children learn to value each other’s individuality and explore issues such as bullying, racism and cyber-bullying. Sex and relationships is also a crucial part of social and health education to ensure that children have the information and understanding to make informed choices.
Relationships: Relationships Education is compulsory in all Primary Schools in England and Wales: the content must be age appropriate and developmentally appropriate Our Relationships Education will support the wider work of the school in helping to foster pupil wellbeing and develop the resilience and character that we know are fundamental to pupils being happy, successful and productive members of society. Central to this is the pupils’ ability to believe that they can achieve goals, both academic and personal; to stick to tasks that will help them to achieve those goals, even when the reward may be distant or uncertain; and to recover from knocks and challenging periods in their lives. This should be complemented by development of personal attributes including kindness, integrity, generosity, and honesty. An understanding for all pupils of healthy relationships, acceptable behaviour and the right of everyone to equal treatment will help ensure that pupils treat each other well and go on to be respectful and kind adults. The knowledge and attributes gained will support their own, and others’, wellbeing and attainment and help young people to become successful and happy adults who make a meaningful contribution to society.
Sex: The national curriculum for science also includes subject content in related areas, such as the main external body parts, the human body as it grows from birth to old age (including puberty) and reproduction in some plants and animals. Unlike Relationship and Health Education, Sex education is not compulsory in primary schools and parents have right to withdraw their children from this additional part of the programme, which takes place towards the end of Year 6. Parents are informed by letter in advance of this part of the teaching – appendix 1. The programme of teaching and resources used can be viewed on request. If a parent would like to apply to withdraw their child from those parts of the programme that are not statutory – how a baby is conceived and born – they may do so in writing to the head teacher. If an agreement is made to withdraw a child, alternative learning opportunities will be provided.
Health: Health education aims to promote an understanding of a range of issues which impact upon lifelong health. It deals with promoting the importance of a balanced diet twinned with physical activity to ensure a high level of physical and mental wellbeing. It also covers issues such as substance and alcohol abuse and the impact this can have on the individual and others around them.
Economic: Economic education aims to teach children about the economy and how to manage their personal finance. It aims to provide children with knowledge and tools to improve their economic wellbeing and the ability to deal with the financial decisions they must make in the future.
The Cedars School seeks to:-
- develop an ethos and environment which encourages a healthy lifestyle for pupils.
- use the full capacity and flexibility of the curriculum to help the children to achieve safe and healthy lifestyles.
- promote an understanding of the full range of issues and behaviours which impact upon lifelong health and well-being.
- to teach sensitively and inclusively with respect to the backgrounds and beliefs of pupils and parents while always with the aim of providing pupils with the knowledge they need of the law.
- to put in place the building blocks of healthy, respectful relationships, focusing on family and friendships in all contexts including online.
- To teach about mental wellbeing which is central to these subjects and our programme of study aims to give pupils the knowledge and capability to take care of themselves and to seek and receive support if problems arise.
We teach PSRSHEE to all children, regardless of their ability. Our teachers provide learning opportunities matched to the individual needs of children with learning difficulties. When teaching PSRSHEE, teachers take into account the SEND list and its details of pupil needs and suitable approaches, some of which may be directly related to PSRSHEE targets
Our ‘Circle Time’ lessons allow children to explore emotions, ways to express those emotions and strategies to cope with them, as well as an awareness of the emotions of others and how our behaviour affects other people.
Our structured activity sessions are specifically tailored to the needs of various groups, from working with a child who is developing coping strategies to facilitating turn-taking and initiation. We help children achieve in all areas of life by ensuring that they are all given the opportunity to be healthy, stay safe, enjoy and achieve, make a positive contribution and achieve economic well-being.
We provide positive experiences through planned and coherent opportunities in the Curriculum, extra-curricular activities and through interactions with teachers and other adults. Our range of artistic, sporting and other cultural opportunities is available to the children through the curricular and extra-curricular programme, and their participation in these opportunities. We plan our personal, social, health, economic education in order that our children are able to acquire values and skills to enable them to develop independence and choose their path in life.
Relationships Education is statutory from September 2020 and is taught as an integral part of our PSRSHEE scheme of work.
By the end of Primary school, pupils should have learned about family relationships and know
- that families are important for children growing up because they can give love, security and stability.
- the characteristics of healthy family life, commitment to each other, including in times of difficulty, protection and care for children and other family members, the importance of spending time together and sharing each other’s lives.
- that others’ families, either in school or in the wider world, sometimes look different from their family, but that they should respect those differences and know that other children’s families are also characterised by love and care.
- that stable, caring relationships, which may be of different types, are at the heart of happy families, and are important for children’s security as they grow up.
- that marriage represents a formal and legally recognised commitment of two people to each other which is intended to be lifelong.
- how to recognise if family relationships are making them feel unhappy or unsafe, and how to seek help or advice from others if needed.
They should have learned about caring friendships and respectful relationships and know
- how important friendships are in making us feel happy and secure, and how people choose and make friends.
- the characteristics of friendships, including mutual respect, truthfulness, trustworthiness, loyalty, kindness, generosity, trust, sharing interests and experiences and support with problems and difficulties.
- that healthy friendships are positive and welcoming towards others, and do not make others feel lonely or excluded.
- that most friendships have ups and downs, and that these can often be worked through so that the friendship is repaired or even strengthened, and that resorting to violence is never right.
- how to recognise who to trust and who not to trust, how to judge when a friendship is making them feel unhappy or uncomfortable, how to manage these situations and how to seek help or advice from others, if needed.
- the importance of respecting others, even when they are very different from them (for example, physically, in character, personality or backgrounds), or make different choices or have different preferences or beliefs.
- practical steps they can take in a range of different contexts to improve or support respectful relationships.
- the conventions of courtesy and manners.
- the importance of self-respect and how this links to their own happiness.
- that in school and in wider society they can expect to be treated with respect by others, and that in turn they should show due respect to others, including those in positions of authority.
By the end of KS2 pupils will have learned about online relationships and being safe, they should know (see also e-safety policy)
- that people sometimes behave differently online, including by pretending to be someone they are not.
- that the same principles apply to online relationships as to face-to face relationships, including the importance of respect for others online including when we are anonymous.
- the rules and principles for keeping safe online, how to recognise risks, harmful content and contact, and how to report them.
- how to critically consider their online friendships and sources of information including awareness of the risks associated with people they have never met.
- how information and data is shared and used online.
- what sorts of boundaries are appropriate in friendships with peers and others (including in a digital context).
- about the concept of privacy and the implications of it for both children and adults; including that it is not always right to keep secrets if they relate to being safe.
- that each person’s body belongs to them, and the differences between appropriate and inappropriate or unsafe physical, and other, contact.
- how to respond safely and appropriately to adults they may encounter (in all contexts, including online) whom they do not know.
- how to recognise and report feelings of being unsafe or feeling bad about any adult.
- how to ask for advice or help for themselves or others, and to keep trying until they are heard.
- how to report concerns or abuse, and the vocabulary and confidence needed to do so.
- where to get advice e.g. family, school and/or other sources.
The national curriculum for science also includes subject content in related areas, such as the main external body parts, the human body as it grows from birth to old age (including puberty) and reproduction in some plants and animals. Unlike Relationship and Health Education, Sex education is not compulsory in primary schools and parents have right to withdraw their children from this additional part of the programme, which takes place towards the end of Year 6. Parents are informed by letter in advance of this part of the teaching – appendix 1. The programme of teaching and resources used can be viewed on request. If a parent would like to apply to withdraw their child from those parts of the programme that are not statutory – how a baby is conceived and born – they may do so in writing to the head teacher. If an agreement is made to withdraw a child, alternative learning opportunities will be provided.
Physical, Health and Mental Well Being
Health Education is taught as an integral part of our PHSEE scheme of work and also forms part of our Science and PE curriculum.
By the end of KS2 pupils will have learned about mental well-being as well as physical health and fitness, they should know:
- that mental wellbeing is a normal part of daily life, in the same way as physical health.
- that there is a normal range of emotions (e.g. happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, nervousness) and scale of emotions that all humans experience in relation to different experiences and situations and how to talk about these emotions
- how to judge whether what they are feeling and how they are behaving is appropriate and proportionate.
- the benefits of physical exercise, time outdoors, community participation, voluntary and service-based activity on mental wellbeing and happiness.
- simple self-care techniques, including the importance of rest, time spent with friends and family and the benefits of hobbies and interests.
- isolation and loneliness can affect children and that it is very important for children to discuss their feelings with an adult and seek support.
- that bullying (including cyberbullying) has a negative and often lasting impact on mental wellbeing. (see E-safety policy)
- where and how to seek support (including recognising the triggers for seeking support), including whom in school they should speak to if they are worried about their own or someone else’s mental wellbeing or ability to control their emotions (including issues arising online).
Pupils will also learn about healthy eating, health and prevention and basic first aid, they should know
- the characteristics and mental and physical benefits of an active lifestyle.
- the importance of building regular exercise into daily and weekly routines and how to achieve this.
- the risks associated with an inactive lifestyle (including obesity)
- what constitutes a healthy diet (including understanding calories and other nutritional content).and how to plan and prepare a range of healthy meals.
- the characteristics of a poor diet and risks associated with unhealthy eating (including, for example, obesity and tooth decay) and other behaviours (e.g. the impact of alcohol, smoking and drugs on diet or health)
- how to recognise early signs of physical illness, such as weight loss, or unexplained changes to the body.
- about safe and unsafe exposure to the sun, and how to reduce the risk of sun damage, including skin cancer.
- the importance of sufficient good quality sleep for good health and that a lack of sleep can affect weight, mood and ability to learn.
- about dental health and the benefits of good oral hygiene and dental flossing, including regular check-ups at the dentist.
- about personal hygiene and germs including bacteria, viruses, how they are spread and treated, and the importance of handwashing and the facts and science relating to allergies, immunisation and vaccination.
- how to make a clear and efficient call to emergency services if necessary.
- concepts of basic first-aid, for example dealing with common injuries, including head injuries.
In Group 3, pupils will learn about adolescence and changes to the body including
- key facts about puberty and the changing adolescent body, particularly from age 9 through to age 11, including physical and emotional changes.
- about menstrual wellbeing including the key facts about the menstrual cycle.
At The Cedars information will be delivered in an accepting and honest way that enables young people to contribute and for questions to be asked and answered as deemed age appropriate. Questions will be handled sensitively and may be referred to parents if the school consider it necessary. Teachers understand that some questions are better not dealt with in front of the whole class.
We aim for our children to understand and appreciate the range of different faiths and cultures in modern democratic Britain, making note of government guidance on ‘Promoting Fundamental British Values through SMSC’ (Nov 2014).
We use our schemes of work and other plans, which enable children to develop an understanding of public services and institutions and to take their place in the modern democratic British Society.
We provide a range of quality opportunities for children to take on roles of responsibility and make a positive contribution to the school and the local and wider communities.
Preventing Extremism and Radicalisation
At The Cedars we will strive to eradicate the myths and assumptions that can lead to some children becoming alienated and disempowered. We ensure that all of our support and approaches will help our children build resilience to extremism and give them a positive sense of identity through the development of critical thinking skills. We develop strategies and staff training to ensure that all of our staff are equipped to recognise extremism and radicalisation and are skilled and confident enough to challenge it. We are flexible enough to adapt our teaching approaches, as appropriate and address specific issues so as to become even more relevant to the current issues of extremism and radicalisation. In doing so we follow the three broad categories of:
- making a connection with children through positive engagement and a learner centred approach;
- facilitating a ‘safe space‟ for dialogue and
- equipping our children with the appropriate skills, knowledge, understanding and awareness for resilience.
Organisation and Assessment
Class teachers will deliver RSE across areas of the curriculum such as PSHEE, RE, PE and science.
A range of teaching styles will be employed in order to encourage pupil participation so that children will feel at ease to discuss details that they may find difficult. Single sex groups may be used when addressing some aspects of puberty and reproduction. Teaching and resources will be differentiated as appropriate to address the needs of children with special needs in order for them to have full access to the content of Relationships and Sex Education. Teaching will be informally assessed and assessments used to identify where pupils need extra support or intervention.
Children come from a variety of backgrounds, cultures and families and all are entitled to learn in a supportive environment free from fear. Some children use homophobic terms and other sexual language as a way to harass other children. This is unacceptable and will be dealt with as any other form of harassment, through the school disciplinary policy.
Staff understand their role in the safeguarding of all children at all times.
Teachers are aware that effective Relationships and Sex Education, which brings an understanding of what is and is not acceptable in a relationship, may lead to disclosure of a child protection issue. If such a concern arises the staff member will inform the Head Teacher /Designated Child Protection person in line with the school procedures for safeguarding.
A member of staff cannot promise confidentiality if concerns exist.
Policy adopted by: Jane O’Halloran
Date: Feb 2021
Review due Feb 2022